Paige Bollen and Volha Charnysh explore the relationship between ethnic heterogeneity and dispute resolution strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. Their analysis of survey data demonstrates that reliance on communal over state institutions decreases with local ethnic fragmentation. The authors find that communal leaders are less equipped to sanction opportunistic behavior and resolve disputes across ethnic boundaries than state actors. The project contributes to the scholarship on the demand for formal legal institutions in heterogeneous settings by investigating micro-level mechanisms that sustain legal pluralism.